Storage and transportation of the hottest garlic m

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Garlic moss MA storage and fresh-keeping technology and transportation (Part 2)

8. Heat dissipation

establish a sub selection field next to the cold storage in a ventilated, cool and flat place. It is best to build a shade in the sub selection field. After the garlic moss is transported to the cold storage, get off the car immediately and spread it on the sub selection field as soon as possible to dissipate the heat in the field

9. Storage and processing

organize workers to process under the shade of the sub selection field, including strip selection, binding and pruning. (1) Selection: untie the moss tip, straighten out the moss stem, remove the residual leaf sheath, and remove the damaged, diseased, budding, fading, soft and other moss strips that are not suitable for storage. (2) Bundle handle: align the selected robust moss strips with the moss buds, and bundle them with polypropylene plastic fiber rope at the moss stem 3-5cm below the moss buds. Each bundle weighs 1.0-1.5kg. The bundle handle should not be too tight to avoid hurting the garlic moss. (3) Pruning: cut the aged moss white at the base of the moss strip, and cut it there when it is aged, and the cut of the stem should be neat and fresh. Those with withered base, irregular fracture, inclined plane or rat tail shape must be cut off, and the cutting mouth should be perpendicular to the moss strip, not cut into an inclined plane. If the fracture is fresh and neat, or the fracture has formed callus, it can not be cut, and the moss is slightly cut with a length of 10-12cm. The processed garlic moss is quantitatively put into the turnover box and immediately sent to the cold storage for pre cooling. Garlic moss should not be stacked under the shade for a long time. The total processing time shall not exceed 24 hours. Therefore, one vehicle shall be transported to process one vehicle

10, precooling, sterilization

(1) precooling: precooling is a very important part of garlic moss storage. The purpose of precooling is to remove the field heat brought by garlic moss as soon as possible, reduce respiratory intensity, provide a bagging initial temperature close to the storage temperature, and avoid condensation in the bag during storage. The precooling temperature should be 0 - – 1.0 ℃. After the garlic moss is put into storage, it should be put on the shelf for pre cooling, the moss tip should be outward, and it should be stacked quantitatively according to the size of the silicon window bag. The piles should be separated with markers, and each pile should be filled with exactly one bag. Do not stack precooling on the ground in the warehouse. The length of precooling time is subject to the chilling of garlic moss. Insert a thermometer in the pile for observation. When the temperature in the pile reaches 0.5-0 ℃, it can be bagged. (2) Sterilization with liquid preservative: every time a shelf of garlic moss is filled, FK garlic moss special liquid preservative spray moss shoots can be used. The use method of FK liquid preservative is: Take 1 part of liquid a and B respectively in the ratio of 1:1, and then take water 10 times the total weight of liquid a and B, then add liquid a and B respectively, mix and spray moss shoots evenly, turn the moss shoots constantly during spraying, and spray evenly inside and outside. Each kilogram of technical liquid can handle 4-8 tons of garlic moss. (3) Fumigant sterilization: after the whole storage rack is full and the moss shoots are treated with liquid preservative, fumigant can be used for treatment. Fumigate with FK fumigant or dimycin fumigant for 8 hours. According to the volume of the warehouse, the dosage of FK fumigant (including 3% TBZ) is g/m3 cold storage. Ventilate for 10-12 hours after fumigant treatment, and pay attention not to reduce the storage temperature during ventilation. After the smoke is discharged and the last sprayed liquid preservative is dried, it can be bagged. The daily storage volume should account for 15% of the storage capacity. Precooling and sterilization are completed within 7 days (that is, one warehouse is filled in seven days)

11. Bagging

using silicon window modified atmosphere bags to store garlic moss requires pre cooling on the shelf, bagging on the shelf, and not bagging off the shelf, which reduces labor intensity and is not easy to cause plastic bag cracking. Garlic moss that has been sprayed and dried can be bagged. Bagging workers should fix their nails and wear gloves to avoid scratching the plastic bag. Bagging requires straightening out the moss strips, with the moss tips facing outward and neat senses. When bagging, the moss strips should be placed at the bottom of the bag, and the gap should be left at the mouth as far as possible. The binding place should not be close to the moss tip to prevent mildew caused by the film on the moss tip. Generally, there is a space of 5-10cm at the mouth of the bag, and the amount of each bag should be basically the same, so that the gas capacity in the bag is the same. After bagging, temporarily pull up the mouth of the bag to prevent the loss of water from garlic moss and the condensation and ponding in the bag. After bagging, the bag mouth shall be sealed after the storage temperature and product temperature are reduced to close to the storage temperature, otherwise early condensation and wet rot in the bag will be caused. When closing, do not fill the bag with too much air, and do not squeeze the air too flat. Close the bag evenly, so that the air content of each bag is basically the same. The bag mouth should be tied tightly without air leakage

at present, most of the silicon window bags used in Shaanxi Province are products of Fufeng County Huaxin Chemical Plastics Co., Ltd. the silicon window cloth in this bag is a raw product of Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The plastic bag is processed from polyvinyl chloride film (PVC), which has a good air conditioning effect and good freshness preservation performance after use. In addition, silicon window bags produced by toutousi refrigeration processing plant in Dezhou City, Shandong Province and silicon window bags produced by Tianjin preservation research center also have good preservation effects. Quality inspection method of silicon window bag: (1) sealing inspection: the bag is full of air, tie the bag mouth tightly, squeeze hard, and see whether there is air leakage at trachoma and crack. All air leakage bags are not available; (2) Semi permeability test of silicon window: the content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the bag is tested during use. One month after storage, the content of gas oxygen in the bag is between% and carbon dioxide is between%, which proves that the translucency is good. (3) Check for broken bags after bagging and putting on shelves. Compress the bag mouth by hand to make the plastic bag spherical. Listen for air leakage. Replace the broken bag immediately

12. Storage period management

(1) temperature: garlic moss is suitable for storage. The storage temperature is not -0.3 - -0.8 ℃. You can't just observe the temperature of the temperature control instrument panel, but you are using a calibrated precision thermometer (the minimum scale is 0.1 ℃) to take representative points in the warehouse for observation, three times a day, and take the average value. (2) Humidity: the optimum storage humidity of garlic moss is 90-95% relative humidity, which can be measured with a special hygrometer or hair hygrometer for cold storage. The sensory measurement method is to hang a soaked sack in the cold storage, and if it is still wet within three days, the relative humidity of the cold storage is about 90%. When the humidity cannot be reached, immediately use the methods of sprinkling water in the cold storage, mechanical spray, hanging wet straw curtains, etc. to increase the humidity. (3) Gas composition: measure the gas in the bag with the Austrian gas analyzer (or other instruments). The suitable gas composition for garlic moss storage is oxygen%; Carbon dioxide%. (4) Ventilation: when the oxygen in the bag is lower than 2% or the carbon dioxide is higher than 9%, open the bag for ventilation. It is better to ventilate at night. Open the silicon window and deflate the bag for 4 hours, start the fan for exhaust. The ventilation should not reduce the storage temperature. It is not suitable to ventilate in rainy days, foggy days and high temperature hours at noon. (5) Dewing: the dewing in the bag is caused by the excessive fluctuation of the storage temperature. The dew is acidic and easy to cause the reproduction and spread of mold, which is extremely unfavorable to garlic moss. The fundamental way to solve the dewing is to keep the storage temperature constant. Once condensation occurs, open the silicon window bag and dry it with a sterile towel. (6) Quality inspection: fixed-point inspection once a month in the early stage of storage: fixed-point inspection once a half month in the late stage of storage, sampling inspection once a month, comprehensive inspection when mildew and decay are found, and rotten moss should be picked out in time

13. Determine the storage period

storage resistant varieties such as Shandong Cangshan garlic moss and Acheng garlic moss can be stored for 280-300 days, or even an annual storage. The storage resistance of varieties that are not resistant to storage depends on the storage resistance. For example, the red moss in Guanzhong area of Shaanxi Province can only be stored for 3 months. The length of storage period is a comprehensive reaction of variety, garlic moss quality, storage conditions and so on. If mildew is found during storage, it should be sold out of the warehouse immediately

14. Disease control during storage

(1) mold: the main pathogens are Botrytis allill, white mold (Penicillium px.) and black mold (cladosprium sp.). The manifestation of gray mold is that it first forms oval irregular spots on the moss strip, then gradually expands, and finally leads to the softening, decay and breaking of the moss strip. The manifestation of white mold and black mold is that white (i.e. white mold) and black (i.e. black mold) villous spots appear at the cutting edge or tip of garlic moss, and then the mycelium expands to form a large number of mycelium. High temperature, high humidity, sufficient oxygen and mechanical injury are prone to mildew. Improving the quality of garlic moss and doing a good job in storage management are the fundamental measures to prevent mildew a few years ago. Once mold occurs, it should be removed from the warehouse as soon as possible. The prevention and control method of mildew during storage is to open the bag mouth, strengthen ventilation, and use fumigant again. (2) Carbon dioxide poisoning: yellow dry spots of different sizes appear on the stems and stems of the moss. The cause of the disease is that the carbon dioxide concentration in the storage environment is too high in the car. The prevention and treatment method is to vent in time when the carbon dioxide concentration in the bag is higher than 9% after the sample is broken. (3) Freezing injury: the symptoms are that the moss is frozen, the color is dark, and decays rapidly after thawing. The prevention method is that the storage temperature should not be lower than -1 ℃. In case of freezing injury, the method of slowly heating up should be adopted immediately to make the temperature gradually close to the appropriate storage temperature, and rapid heating up should be avoided

15. Outbound and long-distance transportation

garlic moss is generally outbound during the Spring Festival. After outbound, it should be transported to the point of sale for sale. Long distance transportation can be carried out. The method of truck long-distance transportation is: Pack cotton wool and pre cool it in the warehouse for 10-12 hours. When loading, lay cotton wool on the vehicle board, and stack the whole bag of garlic moss on it. After the garlic moss is filled with the vehicle box, the upper part is covered with cotton wool, that is, all garlic moss is wrapped by cotton wool, It's easy to cover the outside with a tarpaulin

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